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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 93-99

Predictors of spontaneous echo contrast in left heart chambers in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: Slowing down might not always mean enjoying life

1 Clinic of Invasive Cardiology and Cardiosurgery, University Clinical Center of Kosova, Pristina, Kosovo
2 Deparment of Echocardiograhy, University Clinic of Cardiology, Skopje, Macedoniaa
3 Clinic of Haematology, University Clinical Center of Kosova, Pristina, Kosovo

Correspondence Address:
Shemsedin Sadiku
Clinic of Haematology, University Clinical Center of Kosova, Pristina
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcecho.jcecho_18_20

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Introduction: Spontaneous echo contrast(SEC) is usually detected in heart chambers as a result of reduced flow velocity in the cavity. The clinical importance of SEC lies in its association with embolic events. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of SEC in left heart chambers in sinus rhythm patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and predictors for its emergence. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional transesophageal echocardiography study conducted in 101 sinus rhythm patients with dilated heart and mild-to-moderate systolic dysfunction. Results: Moderate-degree SEC was found in the left ventricle(LV) in around 9% of patients, in the left atrium(LA) in 12% and in left atrial appendage(LAA) in 40%. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower heart rate(95% confidence interval[CI]: 0.845–0.978; P = 0.011) and larger LV end-systolic diameter(LVESD)(95% CI: 1.034–1.394; P = 0.017) were independent predictors for LV SEC presence. Lower LV ejection fraction(LVEF) (95% CI: [−0.079]–[−0.037]; P = 0.0001) was the only independent predictor for SEC in the LA. Whereas, independent predictors for SEC in LAA were lower heart rate(95% CI:[−0.030]–[−0.003]; P = 0.018), greater LA indexed diameter (95% CI: 0.016–0.116; P = 0.010), and higher value of C-reactive protein(CRP)(95% CI: 0.0026–0.031; P = 0.027). Conclusions: SEC in left heart chambers is a frequent finding in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy in sinus rhythm. Lower heart rate and LVEF, larger LVESD and LA, as well as higher CRP, predict the presence of SEC in left heart chambers. Lower heart rate might be an essential predictor for SEC presence and severity in these patients.

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