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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 74-76

Left ventricular postinfarction pseudoaneurysm: diagnostic advantages of three-dimensional echocardiography

1 Emergency Department, Antonio Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy
2 Department of Internal Medicine, S.M. Loreto Nuovo Hospital, Naples, Italy
3 Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy

Date of Web Publication31-Mar-2017

Correspondence Address:
Federico Cacciapuoti
Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Second University of Naples, Piazza L. Miraglia, 280138, Naples
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcecho.jcecho_49_16

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We present a case of posterior left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, a rare but potentially lethal complication of inferior acute myocardial infarction. The clinical findings and the customary, noninvasive diagnostic methods used are illustrated. Particularly, the most evident display obtained by the employment of three-dimensional echocardiography in comparison to those supplied by two-dimensional ultrasonic method was illustrated.

Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction, conventional diagnostic methods, left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, three-dimensional echocardiography

How to cite this article:
Cacciapuoti F, Tirelli P, Cacciapuoti F. Left ventricular postinfarction pseudoaneurysm: diagnostic advantages of three-dimensional echocardiography. J Cardiovasc Echography 2017;27:74-6

How to cite this URL:
Cacciapuoti F, Tirelli P, Cacciapuoti F. Left ventricular postinfarction pseudoaneurysm: diagnostic advantages of three-dimensional echocardiography. J Cardiovasc Echography [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Oct 26];27:74-6. Available from: https://www.jcecho.org/text.asp?2017/27/2/74/203564

  Introduction Top

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVP) is a noncommon complication of myocardial infarction (MI). Other less frequent causes include mitral valve surgery, bacterial endocarditis, and previous chest trauma.[1] Its formation is consequent to the incomplete rupture of the myocardial free wall contained by adherent pericardium or scar tissue.[2] LVPs are characterized by a narrow neck and a large external sac.[3] Its noninvasive diagnosis can be easily obtained by transthoracic echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),[4],[5] left ventriculography is the most accurate diagnostic method but requires an invasive procedure.[6]

We refer on a patient who presented an LVP occurred as a consequence of an inferior MI and evaluated with both traditional, noninvasive methods and three-dimensional echocardiography (3D-E). Three-dimensional echocardiography findings add adjunctive and more accurate informations about LV pseudo-aneurysm respect to those of two-dimensional echocardiography

  Case Report Top

A 79-year-old nondiabetic man joined to the Emergency Department complaining chest discomfort and pulmonary congestion, restlessness, perspiration, and anxiety. Physical examination evidenced the arterial pressure of 115/75 mmHg and the heart rate of 72 beats × min. Electrocardiogram (ECG) showed S-T segment elevation in leads III and aVF and Q waves in leads II, III, and aVF [Figure 1]. At two-dimensional echocardiography (2D-E), decreased LV systolic function (ejection fraction of 40%) with akinesia of the inferior septum and posterolateral wall, was evident. Emergency coronarography immediately performed showed an occlusion of right and circumflex coronary arteries. Immediately, the patient was submitted to two-stent implantation in the same arteries. Four weeks after the percutaneous angioplasty, he presented dyspnea, weakness, and stertors in both pulmonary bases. A mild systolic murmur was heard on left lower sternal border. The continuity of the myocardium at the posterior wall was disrupted and a narrow neck communicating with a small sac was seen at repeated 2D-E [Figure 2]. Cardiac MRI also pointed out a small dilation with a narrow neck in the posterior wall of the LV [Figure 3]. 3D-E was also performed. A full volume acquisition was obtained during held respiration and volume of LVP acquired at end-diastole was of 59.3 mL [Figure 4]. Subsequently, the patient was submitted to surgical treatment of LVP as recommended.[7]
Figure 1: The 12-lead electrocardiogram shows ST elevation and Q waves in inferior derivations (DIII and aVF) and negative T in lateral derivations.

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Figure 2: Two-dimensional echocardiography shows the pseudoaneurysm (Ps.) and its neck interesting the left ventricular inferior wall.

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Figure 3: Magnetic resonance imaging showing the pseudoaneurysm of left ventricular inferior wall.

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Figure 4: Three-dimensional echocardiography reconstruction of left ventricular including the pseudoaneurysm.

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  Discussion Top

LVP is a quite rare complication of previous acute coronary syndrome. It was been primarily found in the posteroinferior wall and in basal segments of LV myocardium while less frequently occurs in the anterior LV wall.[6] The most common clinical presentation is dyspnea or congestive heart failure. In other cases, LVP may be characterized by chest pain without further changes of ECG.[8] The classic auscultatory sign of LVP is now systolic murmur reported to mitral regurgitation. 2D-E is a valuable, noninvasive tool for its clinical diagnosis.[9] MRI is an effective diagnostic method to confirm the presence of an aneurysmal dilation and disruption of the epicardial layer.[10] 3D-E is able to define the size and shape of LVP, making easier to evaluate its dimensions, the visualization of diastolic volume, and the neck identification.[11] In addition, this noninvasive method is more useful in its presurgical assessment and for diastolic volume evaluation of LVP. Conclusively, 3D-E is able to add further and more useful informations on LVP respect to those supplied by conventional, noninvasive methods.

  Conclusion Top

The non-invasive diagnosis of LV psudoaneurysm is difficult. In this appraisal, 3D-E appears as a more useful and less time-consuming in comparison with 2D-E, in order to evaluate LV size and shape, its global function and the extension of myocardial scar.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 1
Hung MJ, Wang CH, Cherng WJ. Unruptured left ventricular pseudoaneurysm following myocardial infarction. Heart 1998;80:94-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
Nurozler F, Kutlu T, Küçük G. False aneurysm of the left ventricle following myocardial infarction: An unusual location. Cardiovasc J Afr 2007;18:380-2.  Back to cited text no. 3
Moreno R, Gordillo E, Zamorano J, Almeria C, Garcia-Rubira JC, Fernandez-Ortiz A, et al. Long term outcome of patients with postinfarction left ventricular pseudoaneurysm. Heart 2003;89:1144-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
Ropers D, Achenbach S, Pfeiffer S. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm following myocardial infarction. Heart 2004;90:555.  Back to cited text no. 5
Frances C, Romero A, Grady D. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32:557-61.  Back to cited text no. 6
Prêtre R, Linka A, Jenni R, Turina MI. Surgical treatment of acquired left ventricular pseudoaneurysms. Ann Thorac Surg 2000;70:553-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
Contuzzi R, Gatto L, Patti G, Goffredo C, D'Ambrosio A, Covino E, et al. Giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm complicating an acute myocardial infarction in patient with previous cardiac surgery: A case report. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2009;10:81-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
Baur HR, Daniel JA, Nelson RR. Detection of left ventricular aneurysm on two dimensional echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1982;50:191-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
Konen E, Merchant N, Gutierrez C, Provost Y, Mickleborough L, Paul NS, et al. True versus false left ventricular aneurysm: Differentiation with MR imaging – Initial experience. Radiology 2005;236:65-70.  Back to cited text no. 10
Grant EN, Huang N, Joshi GP, Aguirre MA. Dual presentation of a giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm and true aneurysm. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2012;25:28-30.  Back to cited text no. 11


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]

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