Asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction and metabolic syndrome: Results from an Italian multicenter study
Salvatore La Carrubba1, Maria Chiara Todaro2, Concetta Zito2, Francesco Antonini-Canterin3, Ines Paola Monte4, Pio Caso5, Paolo Colonna6, Cesare de Gregorio2, Antonio Pezzano7, Frank Benedetto8, Giovanni Di Salvo5, Scipione Carerj2, Vitantonio Di Bello9
1 Internal Medicine, A.O.R. Villa Sofia Cervello, Palermo, Italy
2 Cardiology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
3 Cardiology, Hospital S. Maria degli Angeli, Pordenone, Italy
4 Cardiology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
5 Cardiology, Monaldi Hospital, Naples, Italy
6 Cardiology, Policlinic of Bari, Bari, Italy
7 Italian Society of Cardiovascular Echography, Milan, Italy
8 Cardiology, Hospital of Reggio Calabria, Reggio di Calabria, Italy
9 Cardiology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Salvatore La Carrubba
Medicina Interna - Azienda Ospedali Riuniti Villa Sofia Cervello - Palermo, Piazzetta Salerno, 1 - 90100 Palermo
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: Declared.
Context: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of interrelated common clinical disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, associated with a greater risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease than any of its individual components. Although MS is associated with increased cardiovascular risk (CVR), its relationship with heart failure (HF) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is not fully understood. Aims: We sought to determine whether MS is associated to LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in a sample of patients with MS and no symptoms for HF. Subjects and Methods: We enrolled 6422 consecutive asymptomatic patients admitted to echo-lab for a routine echocardiogram. We calculated LV systolic and diastolic function, by Simpson biplane method and validated Doppler parameters, respectively. MS was diagnosed if three or more CVR factors were found. Results: LV systolic function was evaluated in 6175 patients (96.2%). In the group of patients without MS (n = 5630), the prevalence of systolic dysfunction was 10.8% (n = 607) while in the group of patients with MS (n = 545) it was 12.5% (n = 87), (RR1.57; CI 95% 1.2-2.0; P < 0.001). Diastolic function was evaluated in 3936 patients (61.3%). In the group of patients without MS (n = 3566) the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was 33.3% (n = 1187), while in patients with MS (n = 370) it was 45.7% (n = 169), (RR1.68; CI95% 1.3-2.0; P < 0.001). After adjustment for age and gender, MS proved to be an independent predictor of LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions: Our data show that asymptomatic LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction, is correlated with MS and demonstrate that echocardiography is a useful tool to detect patients at high risk for HF. Echocardiography in asymptomatic patients with MS may lead to a therapy initiation at early stages to prevent future cardiovascular events and HF.