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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| October-December  | Volume 26 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 13, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Review in translational cardiology: Micrornas and myocardial fibrosis in aortic valve stenosis, a deep insight on left ventricular remodeling
Fabiani Iacopo, Conte Lorenzo, Enrico Calogero, Passiatore Matteo, Pugliese Nicola Riccardo, Santini Veronica, Barletta Valentina, Liga Riccardo, Scatena Cristian, Mazzanti Chiara Maria, Di Bello Vitantonio
October-December 2016, 26(4):109-114
DOI:10.4103/2211-4122.192132  
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a huge class of noncoding RNAs that regulate protein-encoding genes (degradation/inhibition of translation). miRNAs are nowadays recognized as regulators of biological processes underneath cardiovascular disorders including hypertrophy, ischemia, arrhythmias, and valvular disease. In particular, circulating miRNAs are promising biomarkers of pathology. This review gives an overview of studies in aortic valve stenosis (AS), exclusively considering myocardial remodeling processes. We searched through literature (till September 2016), all studies and reviews involving miRNAs and AS (myocardial compartment). Although at the beginning of a new era, clear evidences exist on the potential diagnostic and prognostic implementation of miRNAs in the clinical setting. In particular, for AS, miRNAs are modulators of myocardial remodeling and hypertrophy. In our experience, here presented in summary, the principal findings of our research were a confirm of the pathophysiological role in AS of miRNA-21, in particular, the interdependence between textural miRNA-21 and fibrogenic stimulus induced by an abnormal left ventricular pressure overload. Moreover, circulating miRNA-21 (biomarker) levels are able to reflect the presence of significant myocardial fibrosis (MF). Thus, the combined evaluation of miRNA-21, a marker of MF, and hypertrophy, together with advanced echocardiographic imaging (two-dimensional speckle tracking), could fulfill many existing gaps, renewing older guidelines paradigms, also allowing a better risk prognostic and diagnostic strategies.
  2 2,343 180
CASE REPORTS
The diagnostic challenge of dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography in a patient with myocardial bridge
Maurizio Cusmą Piccione, Concetta Zito, Olimpia Trio, Alessandra Oteri, Myriam D'Angelo, Giuseppe Andò
October-December 2016, 26(4):120-122
DOI:10.4103/2211-4122.192175  
A 60-year-old male patient was submitted to dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography (DSE) for chest pain during exertion. At rest, no electrocardiographic (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) abnormalities were observed. After dipyridamole infusion, the patient complained a mild chest discomfort, without ECG changes and TTE wall-motion abnormalities. Subsequently, worsening of the anginal symptoms combined with descending ST-depression and T-negative waves occurred after atropine and unexpectedly, aminophylline administration. Coronary angiography was performed showing a myocardial bridge (MB) of the left anterior descending artery. The occurrence, during DSE, of worsening ischemic abnormalities after atropine and aminophylline administration may be a particular diagnostic feature of MB.
  1 1,692 97
Infective endocarditis of the left main to right atrial coronary cameral fistula
Ramesh Chandra Mishra, Ramachandra Barik, Amar Narayana Patnaik
October-December 2016, 26(4):123-126
DOI:10.4103/2211-4122.192178  
A 7-year-old female child presented with pyrexia of unknown origin. She had received an empirical regimen of antibiotic for possible endocarditis. Evaluation included multiple imaging supports and blood culture. She had left main coronary artery to right atrium coronary cameral fistula, restricted patent ductus arteriosus, vegetation at the right atrial exit of fistula and negative blood culture. Ongoing fever more than 2 weeks, oscillating vegetation in the echo and histopathological evidence of healing vegetation suggested definite diagnosis of infective endocarditis. She was treated successfully by surgical closure of fistula from the right atrial approach. Device closure in this case would have resulted in a large residual cul-de-sac with or without tiny residual high-velocity jets, either being a threat for future enlargement, rupture of the residual aneurysmal sac, thromboembolism, prolonged anticoagulation, and infective endocarditis.
  1 1,957 76
Transesophageal echocardiography in a distal aortopulmonary window
Subramanian Chellappan, Ashish Katewa, Yogesh C Sathe
October-December 2016, 26(4):131-134
DOI:10.4103/2211-4122.192182  
Aortopulmonary window (APW) is a relatively rare cardiac lesion representing approximately 0.2%-0.4% of all cardiac malformation. It is a cardiac abnormality that results from abnormal communication between the proximal aorta and the main pulmonary artery in the presence of two normally separated aortic and pulmonary valves. In the past, the diagnostic and surgical approach to APW was almost always preceded by cardiac catheterization. With recent advances in noninvasive approach and techniques of two-dimensional echocardiography diagnosis of the defect and associated anomalies are facilitated without a cath study. We report a 4-month-old infant with a distal APW who was referred to our center for surgical repair. We emphasize the usage of transesophageal echocardiography as a valuable intraoperative tool which not only confirms the preoperative diagnosis but also helps in assessing the surgical repair of an APW.
  1 1,526 67
Isolated double-chambered right ventricle with intact interventricular septum
Subramanian Chellappan, Balaswaroop Sahu, Yogesh C Sathe
October-December 2016, 26(4):127-130
DOI:10.4103/2211-4122.192180  
Double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is a developmental cardiac anomaly in which anomalous muscle bundles divide the right ventricular (RV) cavity into two chambers. It is usually associated with other congenital cardiac defects, of which ventricular septal defect is the most common association. Isolated DCRV with an intact interventricular septum is very rarely reported. It manifests itself usually in adolescence and adults as the obstruction progresses gradually. It is important to recognize this anomaly as it can progress to severe RV failure if unaddressed. We report a 13-year-old male who presented to us with an isolated DCRV. He successfully underwent a resection of the RV cavity anomalous muscle bundles. We also stress on the utility of transesophageal echocardiography intraoperatively which accurately delineates the location of the muscle bundles and helps in evaluating the adequacy of resection postsurgery.
  - 1,633 99
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Addition of exercise to dipyridamole stress echocardiography in order to carry on the ischemic cascade: Role in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and prognostic value
Piergiuseppe Piovesana, Pietro Offelli, Francesca D'Ambrosio, Fabio De Conti, Virginia Scarabeo, Marco Panfili, Francesco Antonini-Canterin
October-December 2016, 26(4):115-119
DOI:10.4103/2211-4122.192173  
Background: Sensitivity of dipyridamole stress echocardiography (SE) is often lower than required. The aim of the present work is the evaluation of the association of dipyridamole and exercise echocardiography. Methods: From June 2007 to January 2011, 259 consecutive patients referred to Camposampiero Echocardiography Laboratory underwent SE. Stress protocol started with dipyridamole infusion of 0.84 mg/kg over 6 min. In patients without a new dyssynergy after dipyridamole, SE was carried on with supine exercise. If endocardial border detection was suboptimal, ultrasound contrast agent was used. Coronary angiography was performed in positive patients. The events recorded during the follow-up were cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (hard events), and coronary revascularization. Results: Of 259 patients, 74 had a positive result: 37 were positive after infusion of dipyridamole, and 37 became positive during exercise. All 74 positive patients underwent coronary angiography: 67 had significant coronary artery disease (36 positive with dipyridamole, and 31 positive with exercise), and 7 had not significant artery disease. In positive patients, the coronary revascularizations were 40. Furthermore, 3 of the 185 negative patients underwent coronary revascularization. During follow-up of 20 ± 10 months, 6 (8.1%) hard events occurred in positive patients. No hard event was observed in negative patients. Conclusions: Dipyridamole SE with the addition of exercise can be proposed as a strategy to carry on the ischemic cascade and to identify the patients who elude the dipyridamole alone SE. A negative result is suggestive of a very good prognosis, free from hard events at 20 ± 10 months.
  - 1,584 84
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