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   2015| October-December  | Volume 25 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 22, 2015

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Right ventricular changes in highly trained athletes: Between physiology and pathophysiology
Antonello D'Andrea, Alberto Morello, Agostino Mattera Iacono, Raffaella Scarafile, Rosangela Cocchia, Lucia Riegler, Enrica Pezzullo, Enrica Golia, Eduardo Bossone, Raffaele Calabro, Maria Giovanna Russo
October-December 2015, 25(4):97-102
Several studies have described the adaptive remodeling of the heart during exercise. In some more practiced endurance athletes, there is a disproportionate load on the right ventricle (RV), at least during exercise, and this might be the basis for a chronic pro-arrhythmic RV remodeling. Especially, in these kinds of athletes the recovery after detraining might be incomplete, in particular for RV changes. The observation of acute myocardial injury based on transient elevation of biomarkers and chronic myocardial scar, not completely reversible changes of the RV and an increased prevalence of some arrhythmias support the existence of an "exercise-induced cardiomyopathy." The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge about changes in the right heart in highly trained athletes and how these change infl uence cardiac function.
  2,717 145 1
Unilateral double great saphenous vein: A clinically significant case report
Abhinitha Padavinangadi, Naveen Kumar, Ravindra S Swamy, Nayak B Satheesha, KG Mohandas Rao
October-December 2015, 25(4):116-118
Great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body originating from the dorsum of the foot at medial malleolus to the level of groin skin crease. It is one among the clinically significant superficial veins of the lower limb. Double or duplication of GSV is considered to be one of its rarest variant forms, which might be often mistaken with the accessory saphenous vein. The overall incidence of duplicated GSV is reported to be 1%. We report herein, a unilateral duplication of GSV with its morphological and clinical perspectives. The major clinical complication that is often encountered from its duplication is recurrent incompetence of the GSV, which predisposes varicosity. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of venous anatomy is important for clinicians and sonographers.
  2,663 72 2
A comparative study of epicardial fat thickness and its association with abdominal visceral fat thickness in obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes subjects
Siddharth Jain, Mahesh Mahadevaiah, Mamatha Shivanagappa
October-December 2015, 25(4):103-107
Context: The concept of visceral fat and its role in various metabolic disorders is well-known. Epicardial fat (EF) is also visceral fat, and very few studies are done, especially in the Indian subcontinent. Aims: To study and establish the relationship of EF thickness (EFT) and abdominal visceral fat thickness (VAT) in obese and nonobese type 2 diabetics and to evaluate the usefulness of EFT as a marker of visceral adiposity. Settings and Designs: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Medicine, JSS Hospital, Mysore, India, between October 2012 and October 2014. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 patients were studied. Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography and ultrasound abdomen. EFT and VAT were measured. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used. T-test used for comparing quantitative variables. Correlation analysis was done using Pearson correlation test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically signifi cant. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test were used for analysis. Results: The mean value of EFT was 5.92 mm, 7.43 mm, 12.97 mm, 11.27 mm, and 13.8 mm for nonobese, obesity Grade I, II, III, and morbid, respectively (P < 0.0001). The mean EFT between nonobese and obese diabetics was 5.92 mm and 10.2 mm, respectively (P < 0.0001). The mean VAT between nonobese and obese diabetics was 16.58 mm and 38.53 mm, respectively. EFT was signifi cantly correlating with VAT in obese diabetics. Conclusion: EFT and VAT were signifi cantly correlated among obese diabetics while not significantly correlated among nonobese diabetics, suggesting obesity is an independent risk factor for visceral adipose tissue deposition both in abdomen as well as in epicardial surface.
  2,397 88 -
Giant left and right Atrium in rheumatic mitral stenosis and tricuspid regurgitation
Prem Krishna Anandan, Patel Jigarkumar Shukkarbhai, Manjunath Nanjappa Cholenahally
October-December 2015, 25(4):113-115
Dilation of atria occurs in patients with valvular heart disease, especially in rheumatic mitral regurgitation, mitral stenosis, or tricuspid valve abnormalities. We report a case of giant left and right atrium in the context of rheumatic mitral stenosis and severe tricuspid regurgitation in a 68-year-old woman.
  2,027 90 2
Tetralogy of fallot, down's syndrome, left ventricular noncompaction, and multiples thrombi
Giovanni Di Salvo, Ziad Bulbul, Ghassan Siblini, Bahaa Fadel, Mansour Al Joufan, Zohair Al Halees
October-December 2015, 25(4):108-110
We report a unique case of left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC), tetralogy of Fallot, and multiples biventricular thrombi in a Down's syndrome. Of interest, speckle tracking analysis detected an abnormal LV myocardial longitudinal deformation, despite the normal ejection fraction and absence of NC at the baseline evaluation.
  1,882 75 1
Beyond thrombus detection: The role of multimodality imaging approach
Maria Chiara Todaro, Giovanni Sirianni, Lisa Innocenti, Antonio Solazzo, Alessandro Zanello, Antonino Piti
October-December 2015, 25(4):111-112
We present a very rare case of paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by the unusual coexistence of a left ventricular apical thrombus and pulmonary embolism as the first manifestation of an unrecognized lung adenocarcinoma.
  1,757 80 -