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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-9

Three-dimensional echocardiography: Advancements in qualitative and quantitative analyses of mitral valve morphology in mitral valve prolapse


Centro Cardiologico Monzino, Istituto di ricovero e cura a carattere scientifico, Milano, Italy

Correspondence Address:
Paola Gripari
Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Via Parea, 4, 20138 Milan
Italy
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2211-4122.131985

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Degenerative mitral valve disease (MVD) is the leading cause of organic mitral regurgitation (MR), one of the most common valvular heart disease in western countries. Substantial progresses in the surgical treatment of degenerative MVD have improved life expectancy of patients with significant MR. However, prognosis, surgical decision and timing of surgery strongly depend on the accurate characterization of mitral valve (MV) anatomy and pathology and on the precise quantification of MR. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, a major technological breakthrough in the field of cardiovascular imaging, provides several advantages over two-dimensional (2D) imaging in the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of MV apparatus. In this review, we focus on the contribution of this new modality to the diagnosis of degenerative MVD, the quantitative assessment of MR severity, the selection and monitoring of surgical and percutaneous procedures, the evaluation of procedural outcomes. The results of a systematic and exhaustive search of the existing literature, restricted to real-time 3D echocardiography in adults, are here reported.


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